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Trekking Pole Parts Explained

May 26, 2010

Trekking poles have become more complicated than the single-piece hiking staffs they've largely replaced. With the wide variety of styles, features, and brands available, deciding which trekking poles are the “right” ones for you, may seem overly complicated. Here's a primer on the parts of a trekking pole: from strap and grip down to basket and tip.

The Grip

(Illustration by Sarah Lampe)

Grips come in different sizes, shapes, and materials. Since this is where your body meets the pole, it’s important to find a grip that fits and works for you.

The grip of your trekking pole should feel comfortable immediately, without causing any undue pressure or pinching. Ergonomic grips have a slight forward lean for a more natural hand position.

Some grips have raised ridges, and these ridges don’t necessarily match every hiker’s hand. You’ll know in a second if the grip is too large, or has ridges that don’t work for you. Hikers with smaller hands, like children and women, should consider poles with smaller grips.

Grips are made of various materials, including rubbers, foams, cork compositions, and plastics, which have different levels of grippiness. A grip should provide a comfortable hold, despite perspiration and rain.

Avoid cheap poles with smooth plastic handles, which can cause sweaty or gloved hands to slip off the pole. Rubbers, foams, and cork compositions are better choices because they retain more grip when wet.

On the lower-priced end, rubbers retain some grip when wet and are less expensive. Cork retains more grip when wet, is lighter, and costs a bit more. Foams retain the most grip and are the lightest, but are less durable.

Some poles feature “grip extensions,” where the grip compound extends down the shaft of the pole. Hikers who change their hand positions often or walk trails with dramatic elevation changes may appreciate this feature.

The Strap

A snug (not tight), comfortable strap offers support.

Trekking poles typically are equipped with adjustable wrist straps at the top of the grip. Properly adjusted straps offer support, so you don't have to grip the pole too tightly and fatigue your hand. Many hikers feel that straps should always be worn as they offer support, are useful in maintaining a good cadence, and make the trekking poles harder to drop.

Some hikers dislike the confining feeling the straps give them though, and either cut them off or just don’t use them. If the consequences of falling on a pole would be worse than the consequences of falling without their stabilizing assistance, they may be a temporary hindrance.

In order to give straps a fair shake, you need to adjust them properly. Put your hand through the appropriate strap from the bottom (note that straps are right- or left-specific) so it rests snugly around your wrist. Then grasp the grip and top of the strap with your hand. Too loose straps are a common mistake. A properly adjusted strap is tight enough to help support the weight of your hand on the pole, but not so tight that it’s difficult to remove or restricts circulation to the hand.

Strap preferences develop over time, so ensure that the straps on your trekking poles are comfortable. Bare nylon can chafe hands, so look for straps that have a soft chamois or fleece liner or padding on the inside to reduce friction. Test the mechanism that adjusts the length and tension of the strap around the wrist to ensure that it’s easy to adjust, even with gloves on, yet stays secure while hiking.

The Shaft Segments

Segments adjust for height and collapse for travel and storage.

The shaft segments of a trekking pole are made from a variety of materials, including aluminum and carbon fiber. Many people will be satisfied with an aluminum pole, but Gregg Fisher, Operations Manger at Leki, says, “If you want the lightest weight possible, carbon fiber is the way to go.”

Carbon fiber absorbs vibration, and has a nice springy feel. Keep in mind, though, that carbon fiber saves only several ounces per pole, costs more, and tends to be fragile. Fisher cautions that if carbon poles are “struck hard with a sharp rock, they might develop a weak spot” prone to breakage, whereas, “aluminum will just bend.” If your only reason for choosing carbon fiber is weight, consider that other features like shock absorbers and baskets can impact the total weight of the poles as much as shaft material.

Most telescoping trekking poles, aluminum and carbon alike, have three segments, each slightly narrower than the one above. The segments slide into each other and are held together by a variety of locking mechanisms. A few models available, often specifically designed for snowshoeing, have only two shaft segments. Two-segment poles don’t collapse as well as three-segment poles, making them harder to travel with or stuff into a pack during a rock scramble. Compact and junior length poles are available for those who don't need as much pole length. Tall individuals will want the longest poles available.

Locking Mechanisms: Internal vs. External

The internal locking mechanism is...inside.

A crucial and differentiating feature between trekking poles is the locking mechanism, which allows hikers to adjust the length of the trekking pole and holds the segments of the pole together. Until recently, internal locking mechanisms were the most common. Internal locks rely on friction to stay secure. A common internal locking mechanism is an “expansion joint,” essentially a plastic widget that expands inside the trekking pole when the shaft is twisted, keeping the pole at the desired length and preventing it from collapsing.

Where internal locking mechanisms are hidden inside, external locking mechanisms are clearly visible outside of the pole, where the segments join. Black Diamond has long produced trekking poles with the FlickLock external locking mechanisms.

An unlocked external locking mechanism

Tor Brown, Category Manager at Black Diamond, notes that the external locking mechanisms used by Black Diamond are “easier to adjust with gloves on, and because they are external, it’s easy to verify whether or not they are locked.” Leki introduced its own external locking mechanism, the SpeedLock, in 2010.

External locking mechanisms are indeed easier to operate with gloves, and can be easier to tighten than their internal counterparts. Many hikers believe that they are more reliable and less prone to collapsing. But, some longtime hikers question their durability over time.

Both internal and external types of locking mechanism allow poles to be easily disassembled, and both have their passionate adherents and detractors. The choice between mechanisms is likely a matter of personal preference. Regardless of your choice, it is very important to verify that the pole is securely locked. A loose lock can cause the pole to collapse when you need it most.

Shock Absorbers

A look at an internal shock absorber

The advent of shock absorbing technology separates trekking poles from their ancestors, walking sticks. Shock absorbers are springs or pieces of elastic material that, according to Fisher, “soften the initial impact of the pole striking the ground.”

Shock absorbers are not standard on most trekking poles, so you can expect to pay approximately twenty dollars or so more for poles that include them over rigid poles.

Are they worth it? As with many features on gear, shock absorbers have both their detractors and their devotees. On the up side, hikers with arthritis or other issues in the wrist, shoulder, or elbow may appreciate the cushion that shock absorbers provide. On the down side, shock absorbers add weight and complexity to trekking poles, and sometimes squeak.

Additionally, shock absorbers can reduce the assist that poles provide on ascents. As hikers climb uphill, they can use poles to push off and up, making the ascent easier. But with shock absorbers, a fraction of that push is soaked up by compressing the shock absorber, making the ascent more difficult. Is it noticeable? Not always, but hikers who want every advantage should consider this.


Small baskets for three-season hiking can be replaced with snow baskets in winter.

Slots on the body of tips allow hikers to add baskets, little discs of plastic like those commonly found on ski poles. Baskets come in various sizes and shapes — from low-profile circles or cones to wide snow baskets for powder — and prevent the tips of the poles from plunging too deeply.

Whereas larger baskets are best for snow, smaller baskets are best for muddy conditions and can prevent pole tips from getting wedged between roots and rocks. Be aware that accessory baskets from one trekking pole brand may not be compatible with another brand's poles.

The Tip

The tip is where the pole interacts with the ground, and is typically made with a body and a point. The body is usually plastic and the point is often hardened steel. Hardened steel is harder than rock, so it bites into rock or ice to offer additionally stability.

For trekking above treeline in places like New Hampshire, Colorado, or the High Sierra, where the trail surface may be bare stone, hardened tips are useful. However, because they are so sharp, improperly used tips can scar rock or puncture the unwary hiker, so use them with caution.

A replaceable tip

Most trekking poles have tips that are easy to remove and replace. Hikers should avoid poles with non-replaceable tips, as tips are more susceptible to breakage than the rest of the pole and all tips wear out eventually. The body portions of some tips are cleverly sacrificial, made of a plastic weaker than the shafts of the pole. So, if the tip becomes stuck in a crack, the body of the tip breaks before the pole shaft. With replaceable tips, it’s simple to knock off the broken one and replace it with new ones from the manufacturer.

A variety of rubber tips, designed for use on pavement or indoors, are available to fit over the typical sharp steel tip. Some hikers use rubber tips to reduce the noise the poles make on the trail and to prevent them from scarring rocks and terrain. However, rubber tips also reduce the tips’ traction and can the cause tips to slip when you need them to stay put. Some manufacturers do not recommend them for trail use.

Special Features

Some shelters, like the Tarptent Sublite, are designed to be pitched with trekking poles.

Some trekking poles are equipped with special features. Poles with compasses embedded in the grips are increasingly common. These give a general sense of direction, but are inadequate for real navigation. Sometimes poles are even equipped with LED flashlights or secret storage areas, but most of these features fall firmly in the realm of the gimmick.

More common, and useful, are poles that are convertible to monopods for photographers. These poles have screws that fit the universal mount on a camera’s bottom, stabilizing it for shooting in low light or with long lenses.

Additionally, some backpackers use trekking poles as tent pole substitutes to pitch lightweight tarps and tents. Some shelters actually are designed to utilize trekking poles, and some hikers jury-rig their regular shelters to take advantage of trekking pole support. Using a trekking pole to pitch your shelter doesn’t require a special type of pole, but consider that tight guy-lines can cut foam grips, so cork or rubber composites are often a better choice.


Further Info

Trekking Poles: To Use or Not?

Selecting a Pair of Trekking Poles

Trekking Pole Fit, Maintenance, and Tips

Trekking Pole Reviews


Handle, pole, thingy part that sicks in the ground?

I am not one to over-complicate things.......... but then it is tough for me to remember to wash my shorts.

I like the idea of "The FLASK POLE" you can put a Martini in it and at the end of the day you can have a Martini shaken not stirred is tough for me to remember to wash my shorts.

As long as you reverse which side faces your skin daily, that's ok.

noddlehead said: is tough for me to remember to wash my shorts.

As long as you reverse which side faces your skin daily, that's ok.

:)........... Good to know!........ Now I just gotta remember which side I wore the day before??

Good article on the trekking poles and I use them on most any rough terrain with any grade.

I guess it is like most everything and we have our own personal preferences.

For me the lighter the better and I do not like using the straps.

I'm a former golfer and club builder. I was looking at a set of trekking poles I had purchased one evening and the light bulb came on.

Two extra stiff driver shafts, over sized club grips, commercial tips and some parts from a hardware store and I had made what fits me to a tee. (No pun intended.)

They cost a fraction of commercial trekking poles as well.

I'm a former golfer and club builder. I was looking at a set of trekking poles I had purchased one evening and the light bulb came on.
Two extra stiff driver shafts, over sized club grips, commercial tips and some parts from a hardware store and I had made what fits me to a tee. (No pun intended.)

They cost a fraction of commercial trekking poles as well.

Cool! You should post a picture with some DIY info and show us.

Thanks for the informative article.

I prefer cork grips, I have not tried the BD Flicklocks yet.

I like baskets & metal tips.

After reading about the LED lights and stuff I told my wife I was going to add some Shimano 600 center pull brakes to mine for steep terrain, she just shook her head and walked out of the room.

Waiting for part 2.

After reading about the LED lights and stuff I told my wife I was going to add some Shimano 600 center pull brakes to mine for steep terrain, she just shook her head and walked out of the room.


Did you expect a different response from someone who is "normal"??

Other than being adjustable, there is only one thing that differentiates a trek pole from a stick. It is the strap ('wrist strap'). Rather than a cool decoration or a means to keep it attached to your body, or a complete bother, the strap's major purpose is to transfer the weight placed on the pole from a large bone connected to the rest of the skeleton. The muscles controlling the hand and fingers are relatively small and fatigue easily. Putting downward pressure on a properly fitted wrist strap transfers a lot of energy from the body's larger upper muscles (back, shoulders, upper arms) to the wrist bone instead of the hand. The hand and fingers don't need a death grip on the trek but are mainly used to flick the trek forward and make sure it gets planted correctly. (This also means you don't need expensive feather weight treks.) Then the power stoke takes over putting the energy transfer to the wrist bone. (There goes the expensive shock absorber.) If you simply take the weight of your arms off your feet, over the day's hike, you can save substantially on what is normally being moved along by your lower body.

Once you get good at it, and well coordinated (as well as a fit upper body), you can press down with just 20 pounds on each stride (left and right step) for a fairly long distance. This is maybe over twice the weight of a big arm. Over the length of a mile you will transfer 40,000 pounds to the poles instead of your legs and feet. This assumes you have something near a left to left foot pace of about five and a quarter feet. This gives you about 2000 strides a mile (times 20 pounds each stride).

If you only have one trek, you are mostly carrying it instead of taking advantage of all the walking efficiency a pair was designed for.

While getting prepared for that hike in the future, along with jogging and running stairs, you had best be getting that upper body buffed out as well...if you are planning to use trek poles.

If you have ice on your mittens or gloves it is almost impossible to adjust twist locks with out exposing your hands to some really, really cold metal. And don't take the dare to touch your tongue to it either.

For the measuring geeks, the Roman Pace is left to left (or right to right) foot. A mille passuum ( "a thousand paces") is perhaps the linguistic root of our mile and became the distance between those milestones on the Roman roads. They had shorter legs apparently as their mile is less than all of the other UK (English, Scot, Irish, or statute) miles.

On a related mater, if you count the number of Roman Paces you make in 36 seconds and divide by 10, it will give you a rough approximation of how fast you are walking (in mph). Works best on level, well groomed land. Again, it assumes your pace is close to 1000th of a mile (5.28'). If not, adjust the arithmetic to make it work. The derivation of the algorithm is left to the reader. (HINT: 60 minutes times 60 seconds is....). Extra credit if you figure the metric equivalent in KPH.

HEY! A new iPhon ap.

I have a pair of Ascend trekking poles and the locking part of one of my poles stripped. can parts be purchased.

I like using poles with a pack. They provide balance in the rough sections and help to unweight the joints. The technology goes way beyond what is functional and practical. I do not care if they are aluminum or carbon fiber. If you can transfer 40,000 pounds in a mile, as speacock suggests, why would we care if they weigh 4 oz or a pound and a half?

Seth, interesting article. Somehow I missed "Part 1"???

A comment on straps - I do a lot of backcountry skiing... actually a lot of skiing, and I have been using hiking/trekking poles for years, though I started as a kid using a hiking "staff", or sticks I picked up off the ground. I was taught by experienced hikers to use the straps just as you describe. However, in August this year, when Barb and I were hiking Fuji (trip report here with the Mongolia section added), one of our guides made a strong statement to our little group of 27 people that having your wrist in the strap (whether the preferred direction bottom to top that you prescribed and I have used for years or some other insertion direction), you run a high risk of seriously damaging your wrist or even breaking your arm should you stumble and fall. I noted that I had been taught the bottom insertion method by people with years of experience and have been using that way for decades. The guide claimed that Andy Tyson had made that statement in their guide training. Now I know Andy (author of several excellent books, including one on self-rescue) and have never heard him say such a thing. I have never heard any of my ski patrol friends say such a thing either, and they see many injuries on ski slopes.

Have you ever heard or seen any strong evidence concerning injuries with the straps for trekking poles?

I rarely use a hiking pole, and when I do its a sturdy stick I picked up off the ground to cross a stream or help me up or down a steep grade, then I toss it back onto the ground.

I have tried a few hiking poles over the years but could never get into the swing of using them. The last ones I had were in the 90's and I left them against a tree for someone else to find and use if they wanted them.

Its kinda like owning a gun or bow to me, I can fashion a tool to hunt with like early man did then leave them behind back in nature when I am through with them. 

I use straps when cross-country skiing.

However I do not use them while walking.

Once (when skiing on hard-packed icy snow) I have fallen and hit the snow with my fingers gripping the pole. My thumb stopped hurting in about half a year. :(

Based on this experience I just ignore straps on my trekking poles. :)

Have you ever heard or seen any strong evidence concerning injuries with the straps for trekking poles?

No - but I haven't been looking. My guess is that samples are so small there hasn't been any systemic study on that issue. My instinct, personal practice and recommendation is to remove straps when descending challenging terrain. Last weekend, I had a classic, New England descent of South Moat mountain. Wet, slippery granite on a fall-line trail. On several occasions, I had to toss my poles to the side when my feet flew out from under me! I could easily imagine a scenario where such a slip could result in a wrist strain.

I've always been of similar thought Seth, keeping my hands free of the straps so I can toss them aside if needed. Then this year I spent some time using them just to see why proponents are so vocal about the benefits. So far I've been lucky on the couple of slips I've had with no injury. Thinking the reward might be worth the risk, though tearing off a hand would probably make me rethink that.

In reply to Bill S. I fell in September with a pole strapped around my right wrist. Yes it broke both the radius and ulna in my lower arm and dislocated my wrist. I had to be flown home and am now held together with internal wires after a full surgical operation. I have been in a cast for 6 weeks and gather it will take up to a year to get full strength and mobility back. The pole caused me to fall in such a way that I couldn't protect myself and the strap was what caused the break. I hadn't even started hiking and was on an ordinary flat pathway. Be careful of straps! Much better to just use the pole such that you can drop it if you fall.

Margaret makes a good point. I have never felt comfortable using straps on hiking poles for this reason. A fall is potentially a problem. I have used straps on x-c and telemark skis for decades, but snow is much more forgiving to fall on.

In Sept I was hiking in Oregon, and there was a low mat growing shrub along the trail a lot of the time. It had short stout branches and I managed to snag a pole basket in one of them. No fall but an awkward step. It is worth it to take the baskets off for hiking when not on snow.

Margaret, you say the pole caused you to fall and that you were on an ordinary flat pathway, that you hadn't even started hiking. I am curious about the details of how the pole caused the fall (single pole or two poles in use?), and what the mechanism that triggered the fall:

on an ordinary flat pathway

where you:

hadn't even started hiking

One reason I ask is that Barb and I just did our renewal and certification of Wilderness First Aid, where one of the scenarios was somewhat similar to your description.

ppine, good point about removing the baskets when not needing them for snow or soft surfaces (like bogs and marshes). For "dry land" hiking, we have dedicated poles from which we have removed the baskets. I have had and seen many baskets seized by the "bush gods".

The point I was trying to make was that the pole caused the severe damage entailed by the fall not that it actually caused the fall itself. If you fall and in the process the pole gets caught under you (or elsewhere) it pulls on your wrist and can break it. In my case I fell sideways to the right and the pole got caught underneath me. Coincidentally a friend had a similar injury from the strap on her ski pole - luckily she only fractured one bone in her arm and the damage wasn't so bad. As to the cause of the fall I can't be sure - it was very quick and I don't recall slipping, but I was trying to get something out of my jacket pocket at the time so the pole strap was hung round my wrist and not actually in use while I stretched across to the pocket. I may indeed have fallen due to the pole getting entangled with my legs but I'm not sure. All I know for certain is that during the fall it was the pole that broke my wrist. I hope this answers your questions.

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